Industrial Autonomous Ground Vehicles (AGVs)

Automated Modern Retail Warehouse AGV Robots Transporting Cardboard Boxes in Distribution Logistics Center

Use of AGVs/UGVs is rapidly growing as multiple industries replace repetitive, labor intensive, and dangerous tasks to improve efficiency, productivity, and safety. These complex systems often operate in harsh environments and require robust timing components that must meet size, EMI, phase noise and stability requirements. SiTime MEMS clocking solutions provide the requisite performance and reliability, even under tough conditions.

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SiTime MEMS Timing Benefits

Complete MEMS clock tree

High Temperature XO

Low jitter differential XO


Accurate and robust

Excellent stability over temperature

Better shock/vibration resistance

Higher quality and reliability

Easy to use, built to last

Programmable features

No quartz reliability issues

>2 billion hour MTBF

Use of autonomous ground vehicles (AGVs) and unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) is rapidly growing as multiple industries race to replace repetitive, labor intensive, and dangerous tasks, improving efficiency, productivity, and safety.

While the terms AGV (autonomous ground vehicles) and UGVs (unmanned ground vehicles) are often used interchangeably, there are a few differences. One key difference is that AGVs are used within buildings, such as in warehouses while UGVs are primarily used outdoors. Other key differentiators are:


  • Operate within buildings
  • Navigation with LIDAR…
  • …or guided paths
  • Communicate wirelessly
  • Battery operated


  • Operate outdoors
  • Use GNSS
  • Communicate wirelessly
  • Use video
  • Battery and/or fuel operated

AGVs and UGVs are complex systems that can operate near humans and in harsh environments. Each of the sub-systems must perform to exact specification under unforgiving conditions. This requires the timing components meet stringent requirements. Component size, EMI, low phase noise and stability are key considerations in designing these systems.

AGVs Block Diagram

AGVs and UGVs are driven by a main microcontroller (MCU). The main MCU interconnects to several subsystems: sensors, telematics, drive MCU, battery management system (BMS), Lidar etc. The clocking requirements for these subsystem can be fulfilled with the SiT8924 oscillator. Telematics typically requires a clock with high stability over the temperature range, such as the SiT5386 Super-TCXO which features ±0.1 ppm stability over -40°C to +105°C. The SiT9025 oscillator features spread spectrum clocking (SSC) to reduce EMI.

Featured Industrial Products for AGV/UGV

Devices Key Features Key Values
Single-ended oscillator
SiT8021  1 to 26 MHz
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  • -40°C to +85°C
  • ±20 ppm stability
  • 1.5 x 0.8 package
  • High reliability
  • Extended temperature range
  • Small footprint
Single-ended oscillator
SiT9025  1 to 150 MHz
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  • Up to -55°C to +125°C
  • Spread spectrum
  • Configurable rise / fall times
  • 2016, 2520, 3225 packages
  • High reliability
  • Extended temperature range
  • EMI Reduction
Differential oscillator
SiT9396  1 to 220 MHz
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SiT9397  220 to 920 MHz
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  • Low jitter: < 150 fs RMS [1]
  • ±30, ±50 ppm stability
  • LVPECL, LVDS, HCSL, Low-power HCSL, FlexSwing™
  • -40°C to +125°C
  • 2016, 2520, 3225 packages
  • High reliability
  • Low jitter
SiT5356  1 to 60 MHz
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SiT5357  60 to 220 MHz
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  • ±0.1, ±0.2, ±0.25 ppm stability
  • ±1 ppb/°C frequency slope
  • -40°C to 105°C
  • Low jitter: 0.31 ps RMS [1]
  • Optional voltage or digital frequency control
  • High accuracy
  • Excellent frequency stability even with fast temperature gradients

1 12 kHz to 20 MHz integration range

SiTime Timing Solutions Advantages

SiTime devices offer the following benefits over quartz crystals, which are particularly important in automotive.

  • 50x better reliability. Apart from reducing the amount of field failures, better reliability translates into a lower FIT rate. This provides better hardware safety metrics in an FMEDA, the quantitative analysis required as part of a functional safety assessment.
  • 30x better resilience to shock, vibration and electromagnetic interference, due to the smaller size (0.4 x 0.4 mm) and lower mass of MEMS resonators compared to crystals. When not causing a permanent damage to the crystal, shock and vibration can induce jitter in a crystal oscillator. Jitter can be detrimental to the bit error rate of a high-speed link. Better resilience of SiTime oscillators ensures a low error rate regardless of operating conditions.
  • Better frequency accuracy, 10x lower aging, and excellent stability over temperature – down to ±20 ppm (XO devices) over -40 to +125°C and ±0.1 ppm (TCXO devices) over -40 to +105°C.
  • SiT9025 features EMI reduction features: spread spectrum and configurable rise/fall times.

MEMS Timing Outperforms Quartz

Better Quality, More Robust

Millions of Configurations

SiTime – Better Quality, More Robust
SiTime – Millions of Configurations


Immune to Vibration

Better Noise Rejection

SiTime – Immune to Vibration
SiTime – Better Noise Rejection
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